As the Taliban works to set up a government it says will be inclusive, it faces several challenges.
The United Nations has warned that up to half a million Afghans could leave the country by the end of this year.
Governments in the region are bracing for a possible refugee crisis.
The European Union says it will help those nations host the refugees.
But some European leaders are concerned about a repeat of the 2015 Syrian refugee emergency.
Some Western countries have been trying to find temporary solutions in other nations, until the Afghans are processed and relocated.
But Pakistan and other bordering states have warned they are not prepared to take in more people.
So, could this lead to a bigger refugee crisis?
Presenter: Nastasya Tay
Shiraz Paracha – political analyst covering Pakistan
Francois Gemenne – professor of environmental geopolitics and migration dynamics at the Paris Institute of Political Studies
Marion Kirabo – human rights activist and politician in Uganda