With recent speculation that the West may not win the battle in Afghanistan, many fear that a resurgent Taliban will lead to increased radicalisation in neighbouring Central Asia.
Since Nato's offensives in Afghanistan and Pakistan have seen hundreds of al-Qaeda fighters flee into Central Asia, experts are concerned that the former Soviet republics of Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan could be the next flashpoint in the fight against Islamic extremism.
Critics of Central Asia's oppressive governments argue that the extremist threat does not stem from Afghanistan but from local oppression of political opponents and religious groups.
As filmmaker Michael Andersen reports, the autocratic Central Asian rulers, many of whom have been in power since Soviet times, have been using the fear of Islamic extremism to justify their oppression for decades.
He warns that it is exactly this brutal clamp-down on any kind of political opposition or independent religious activity which is sending more people flocking to outlawed religious organisations to vent their frustration.
Breeding extremism first aired in January 2010.
Source: Al Jazeera