They are on opposite sides in the war in Syria, but have largely steered clear of each other.
That all changed on Tuesday, when Turkey shot down a Russian fighter jet - which it says entered its air space and was warned repeatedly.
But Russia says its pilots received no warning, and denied straying into Turkish air space.
Relations between the two countries have sharply deteriorated since then.
Russia has now imposed a series of economic sanctions against Turkey.
So, with tension running high, can Moscow and Ankara resolve their dispute? And how will this impact the war in Syria?
Presenter: Hazem Sika
Ahmet Han - Associate Professor of International Relations at Kadir Has University
Sergei Markov - Political strategist and public spokesman for President Vladimir Putin
Alexander Titov - Lecturer in Modern European History at Queen's University Belfast
Source: Al Jazeera