The so-called Arab Spring raised hopes of regime change and a path towards democracy across the Middle East and North Africa.
Tunisia has emerged with credit, and a new constitution.
But for many those dreams remain elusive. In Libya and Egypt, Yemen and Syria, and spilling over into Iraq.
So has that disillusionment found a new focus?
The armed group ISIL has seen its ranks swell over the past year.
This month, recruits from Algeria, Egypt, Libya and Saudi Arabia swore allegiance to the self-appointed Caliph, Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi.
But how much does ISIL owe its existence to the failings of the Arab Spring?
And is it seeking the support of those who have been left politically and ideologically disillusioned?
Presenter: Mike Hanna
Robert Becker - International Political Consultant, who was convicted in Egypt's NGO crackdown in 2011.
Fawaz Gerges - Chair of Contemporary Middle Eastern Politics and International Relations at the London School of Economics.
Eugenio Lilli - Founder of the King's College US foreign policy research group and teaching fellow at the UK Joint Services Command.
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Source: Al Jazeera