"As a result of the clash, one soldier died and another was injured. The attackers escaped and their injuries are unknown," the statement added.
Troops have begun a search for the attackers.
The post is one of several set up by the Lebanese army on the border with Syria two years ago after the 2006 Israel-Hezbollah war.
They were established in an attempt to stop the smuggling of arms and contraband goods across the border.
The attack came two days after a military court began the trial of more than 30 people accused of taking part in fighting with Lebanese troops in a Palestinian refugee camp in northern Lebanon last year.