The Boeing-737 is thought to be locally owned but operating a service to Tehran on behalf of an Iranian carrier.
Local officials say most of the passengers were either Iranian or Kyrgyz. Iran's ambassador to Kyrgyzstan told state television that 44 Iranians were among the dead and 12 Iranians had survived.
The cause of the crash is still not known, but reports from the scene said the jet came down shortly after takeoff and may have been trying to make an emergency landing.
The crew had reported a technical problem about 10 minutes into the flight, an airport official said.
The US military has bases in the area to support its operations in Afghanistan and it sent rescue personnel and equipment to help deal with the disaster.