Thousands of demonstrators have continued their protests in Kuala Lumpur for a second day to demand the resignation of Malaysian Prime Minister Najib Razak over a financial scandal.
The crowd of yellow-clad protesters, who slept on the streets near the city's Independence Square, woke on Sunday to mass exercises and a resumption of the previous day's peaceful demonstration.
This is a watershed moment. Malaysians are united in their anger at the mismanagement of this country.
Initial crowds appeared smaller than Saturday, when police said 29,000 had gathered, while the rally's organisers - electoral-reform pressure group Bersih - said 200,000 had turned out.
Authorities have blocked the organiser's website and banned yellow attire and the group's logo in a bid to deter the rallies, which were also held in other Malaysian cities.
The rally is scheduled to last until midnight Sunday to usher in Malaysia's 58th National Day.
"This is a watershed moment. Malaysians are united in their anger at the mismanagement of this country. We are saying loudly that there should be a change in the leadership," said protester Azrul Khalib, who slept on the street with his friends.
He said he was aware that the rally would not bring change overnight, but he wanted to be "part of efforts to build a new Malaysia".
Former Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad, who has been spearheading calls for Najib's resignation, added momentum to the rally when he made a surprise brief appearance late on Saturday with his wife to loud cheers from the crowd, telling protesters to "carry on".
|Former Malaysian PM Mahathir Mohamad joined the protesters and told them "the only way for the people to get back to the old system is for them to remove this prime minister" [Reuters]
Najib has been fighting for political survival after leaked documents in July showed he received about $700m in his private accounts from entities linked to indebted state fund 1Malaysia Development Berhad (1MDB).
He later said the money was a donation from the Middle East, and fired his critical deputy and four other Cabinet members as well as the attorney general investigating him.
| Malaysia: Crackdown on Freedom
He slammed the protests for tarnishing Malaysia's image.
"Those who wear this yellow attire ... they want to discredit our good name, scribble black coal on Malaysia's face to the outside world," Najib was quoted as saying by national news agency Bernama.
Deputy Prime Minister Zahid Hamidi, who is also home minister in charge of domestic security, warned organisers faced possible charges under assembly, sedition and other laws.
"What is important is that I am empowering the police to take action," he was quoted as saying by Malaysian media.
Scores of police barricaded roads leading to the Independence Square, a national landmark that authorities declared off-limits to protesters ahead of the national day celebrations on Monday. Previous two Bersih rallies, in 2011 and 2012, were dispersed by police using tear gas and water cannons.
Analysts said the rally attracted a largely urban crowd with a smaller participation of ethnic Malays, which could be the reason why the Najib government allowed it to go on.
"They feel safe because it has not really affected the rural Malay segment, their bedrock support," said political analyst Ibrahim Suffian. However, he said this did not mean that rural Malays were happy with the government, as many were upset with the plunging currency and economic slowdown.
A nation of 30 million, Malaysia is predominantly Malay Muslim with significant Chinese and Indian minorities.
Its ambitions to rise from a middle income to a developed nation this decade have been stymied by slow-paced reforms and Najib's increasing authoritarianism.
Support for Najib's National Front has eroded in the last two general elections. It won in 2013, but lost the popular vote for the first time to an opposition alliance.
|Authorities have blocked the organiser's website and banned yellow attire and the group's logo in a bid to deter the rallies [AP]