"Several dozens of Palestinians began an unauthorised protest on Salah Edin Street, shouting nationalistic slogans," Shmulik Ben Rubi, Jerusalem district police spokesman, said.
Police used stun grenades and batons to break up the demonstration on Thursday, Ben Rubi said. They detained one protester.
Although Land Day is traditionally marked across Israel, Palestinians often demonstrate in solidarity with the Israeli Arabs.
The main Land Day event was to be held in the now largely Jewish town of Lod and attended by leaders of Israel's Arab community.
Several smaller rallies will also take place in the northern towns of Kfar Kanna and Arraba in Galilee, where the original 1976 protests against land confiscations were held and six demonstrators killed.