A senior security official said the rockets hit the Afghani capital early on Tuesday morning at about 02:00 (21:30 GMT Monday).
One rocket landed west of Kabul's international airport, hitting the bathroom of a house.
There were no casualties, according to security chief Baba Jan - who did not yet know the location of the second explosion.
Jan also told journalists the attacks took place hours before delegates of the Loya Jirga were due to resume debate on ratifying the country's new constitution.
A spokesman for Taliban claimed responsibility for the attack.
"We warn more attacks on Kabul city today and tonight," the spokesman said, identifying himself as Abd al-Samad.
The airport is several kilometers away from Kabul's polytechnic institute where the 500-delegate assembly to hammer out Afghanistan's constitution is underway.
Possible third rocket
However, a statement by the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) said three explosions were heard after midnight.
"We can confirm that between 00:30 and 01:00 on Tuesday … up to three explosions were detected in the environs of Kabul," the statement said.
"There are no reports of casualties or damage to ISAF installations at this time," it added.