The Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (IACHR) has condemned what it called an “excessive use of force” by police in Guatemala against demonstrators opposed to a new budget that slashes social spending, while the government called fires set by protesters at congress “terrorist acts”.
Protesters broke into the building of the Congress of the Republic of Guatemala and set one office afire on Saturday and tossed rocks at police. Flames poured out of the building’s neoclassical facade.
Police used tear gas and batons to push demonstrators back, attacking not only about 1,000 demonstrators in front of congress but also a much larger protest in front of the country’s National Palace. Some protesters also damaged bus stations.
The IACHR wrote on Twitter on Sunday that it “condemns the excessive use of force by authorities against demonstrators” but also asked for an investigation into “the acts of vandalism against Congress, after which State agents indiscriminately suppressed the protest.”
It said governments “must respect peaceful demonstration,” but when faced with violence, they “must identify persons — protesters or third parties — who risk rights or infringe State property. ”
The protests were part of growing demonstrations against President Alejandro Giammattei and the legislature for approving a budget that cut educational and health spending. Lawmakers approved $65,000 to pay for meals for themselves, but cut funding for coronavirus patients and human rights agencies.
Giammattei’s interior minister, Gendri Reyes, said “a group of people attacked with terrorist acts, throwing firebombs to destroy congressional buildings. They tossed rocks and used weapons against security forces.”
About 10,000 demonstrators protested in front of the National Palace in Guatemala City against corruption and the budget, which they say was negotiated and passed by legislators in secret while the Central American country was distracted by the fallout of back-to-back Hurricanes Eta and Iota as well as the COVID-19 pandemic.
“We are outraged by poverty, injustice, the way they have stolen the public’s money,” said psychology professor Rosa de Chavarría.
“I feel like the future is being stolen from us. We don’t see any changes; this cannot continue like this,” said Mauricio Ramirez, a 20-year-old university student.
The amount of damage to the building was unclear, but the flames initially appeared to have affected legislative offices, rather than the main hall of the Congress of the Republic of Guatemala.
Giammattei condemned the fires using his Twitter account on Saturday.
“Anyone who is proven to have participated in the criminal acts will be punished with the full force of the law,” he said.
Giammattei wrote that he defended people’s right to protest, “but neither can we allow people to vandalise public or private property”.
The president said he had been meeting with various groups to present changes to the budget.
Protesters were also upset by recent moves by the Supreme Court and attorney general that they saw as attempts to undermine the fight against corruption.
Vice President Guillermo Castillo has offered to resign, telling Giammattei that both men should leave their positions “for the good of the country”. He also suggested vetoing the approved budget, firing government officials and attempting more outreach to various sectors around the country.
Giammattei had not responded publicly to that proposal, and Castillo did not share the president’s reaction. Castillo said he would not resign alone.
The spending plan was negotiated in secret and approved by congress before dawn Wednesday.
The Roman Catholic Church leadership in Guatemala also called on Giammattei to veto the budget on Friday.
“It was a devious blow to the people because Guatemala was between natural disasters, there are signs of government corruption, clientelism in the humanitarian aid,” said Jordan Rodas, the country’s human rights prosecutor.
He said the budget appeared to favour ministries that have historically been hot spots of corruption.
In 2015, mass street protests against corruption led to the resignation of President Otto Perez Molina, his Vice President Roxana Baldetti and members of his cabinet. Both the former president and Baldetti are in jail awaiting trials in corruption cases.