With temperatures dropping, the journey for those caught between borders is becoming even more difficult.
Six European Union warships have started military operation, patrolling international waters in the Mediterranean Sea to catch human traffickers who bring refugees to Europe.
The mission off the coast of Libya – the departure point for many of the refugees – launching on Wednesday includes an Italian aircraft carrier, a French frigate and one British, one Spanish and two German ships.
On board the Werra, one of the German ships taking part, the 100-person strong crew has already carried out several exercises, including a simulation of an attack carried out by traffickers, to which they responded by opening fire.
For this mission, the team includes sailors trained in boarding ships on the high seas, the Werra’s captain Stefan Klatt told AFP news agency.
The EU gave the go-ahead for the operation in international waters in September, but its ships are not, for now, allowed to pursue traffickers into Libyan waters.
“We follow the traffickers and want to arrest them and seize their ships,” the captain said, adding that he’ll get as close to Libyan waters as he can.
At least three other vessels supplied by the Belgian, British and Slovenian navies are expected to arrive in the area at the end of October to complete the force, which also include four aircraft and 1,318 personnel.
The planning of the mission – EUNAVFOR MED – started in June with the first phase focusing on compiling and analysing information on the trafficker networks.
Over the past few weeks, it has identified 20 “escort” boats – the type used by traffickers who take people out to sea in fishing boats and dinghies before leaving them and returning to Libya in the escort boat.
It could have taken action against all of the 17 Libyan and three Egyptian “escort” boats spotted, had phase two of the operation already been up and running.
On the map, the operation will patrol over 10 areas off the Libyan coast: four along the 12-nautical mile mark which separates international from Libyan waters, and the others further out to sea.
The whole of the northwestern coast of Libya from the Tunisian border to Sirte will be on lockdown, apart from an area directly in front of Tripoli, left open to prevent a total maritime blockade.
Traffickers hoping to take people out of the area by boat will still run into EUNAVFOR MED once they get into international waters.
But the operation will need a green light from the UN Security Council and Libyan authorities to venture into Libyan waters – authorisation which appears to be still some way off.