Russia definitely has the upper hand here because it has a history of financing a strong and sophisticated propaganda machine, and Turkey doesn't have that.

Nina Ognianova, Committee to Protect Journalists

Relations between Russia and Turkey have deteriorated sharply since Turkish F16s brought down a Russian fighter plane along the Syrian border.

Ankara says the jet violated Turkish airspace, whereas Moscow insists that Turkey shot down its plane over Syrian territory.

The messages, which present very different versions of the facts, have since been amplified in the media of both countries.

For both Russian President Vladimir Putin and Turkey's President Recep Tayyip Erdogan, the Syrian conflict is a geopolitical minefield, which is why both nations are determined to control what is being said over the airwaves.

Strong on propaganda, less so on independent journalism, this is a story in which challenging the official line is a risky business.

Talking us through the story are: Behlul Ozkan, a columnist at BirGun newspaper; Olga Khvostunova, a political analyst at the Institute of Modern Russia; Nina Ognianova from the Committee to Protect Journalists; and Ekaterina Chulkovskaya, a reporter at Russia Beyond The Headlines.

Source: Al Jazeera