On June 1, one of the most controversial sections of the US Patriot Act, a piece of legislation that allows the National Security Agency (NSA) to conduct mass surveillance on American citizens - will expire.

The challenge for Congress is trying to pass a bill that will sway some liberty concerns while also maintaining a robust national security structure that allows it to deal with threats posed by groups like ISIL.

Robin Simcox, Henry Jackson Society

Enacted just 45 days after the September 11 attacks in 2001, the legislation allowed the US government far-reaching powers to gather information about its citizens.

Now the debate over how far anti-terrorism legislation should be allowed to infringe on the liberties of ordinary citizens has reignited.

Exposed nearly two years ago by Edward Snowden, one of the most contentious provisions of the act is up for renewal.

Congress is set to decide whether or not to renew section 215 - which allows the NSA to sweep up phone records in bulk.

If undecided, the USA Freedom Act is lying in wait, a piece of legislation which will reform the NSA and effectively end aspects of the surveillance programme as we know it.

However this debate did not only take place in Washington.

Earlier this month a 'closed-door' meeting was held in the UK involving heads of Apple, Google and Vodaphone as well as former intelligence chiefs, all there to discuss the future of surveillance.

Walking us through the surveillance story are: Duncan Campbell, investigative journalist; Sabrina Siddiqui,  The Guardian  US; Neema Singh, ACLU; Sumit Ganguly, Indiana University; and Robin Simcox, Henry Jackson Society.

Source: Al Jazeera