Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan have been in dispute over land and water resources for more than 30 years.
But that has recently escalated into the heaviest fighting in years and raised fears of a wider conflict.
At least 40 people were killed in the cross-border shelling, and thousands evacuated.
The fighting broke out on Wednesday near a water facility in an area claimed by both nations.
Villagers from opposing sides threw rocks at each other and border guards then fired guns and mortars.
The two sides now say they have reached what they call a “complete ceasefire” after an initial truce broke down.
So, can this violence be contained?
Or will it escalate into a wider conflict?
Presenter: Hashem Ahelbarra
Bruce Pannier – Journalist and correspondent at Radio Free Europe specialising in Central Asia
Viktor Olevich – Political analyst and lead expert at Center for Actual Politics
Domitilla Sagramoso – Lecturer in security and development in the Department of War Studies at Kings College London