Last year was the worst yet in the fight against armed groups in the Sahel region of West Africa.
The United Nations says the unprecedented rise in “terrorist violence” killed more than 4,000 Africans.
France and five regional countries – Burkina Faso, Chad, Niger, Mali and Mauritania – have thousands of troops fighting groups, some linked to ISIL (ISIS) and al-Qaeda.
But anger against the operation – and France – is growing.
President Emmanuel Macron has hosted a summit to discuss whether French soldiers should stay.
Has the military campaign failed? And could the conflict spread further in West Africa?
Presenter: Martine Dennis
Emmanuel Dupuy – President of the Institute of European Perspective and Security
Hannah Armstrong – Senior consulting Sahel analyst at the International Crisis Group
Emmanuel Kwesi Aning – Professor of security studies at the Kofi Annan International Peacekeeping Training Centre