But Russia and Israel have steered clear of confronting each other.
That changed last Monday when Syrian government forces mistook a Russian reconnaissance plane for an Israeli jet and shot it down, killing all 15 people on board.
The Russian defence ministry said Israeli fighter jets deliberately used the Russian plane as cover.
The Israeli military insists it’s not to blame, adding that it did not “hide behind any aircraft”.
So, how will this incident impact the Russia-Israel relationship?
Presenter: Elizabeth Puranam
Samuel Ramani – Specialist on Russia and Middle East Relations, and a contributor at the Russian International Affairs Council think-tank.
Houchang Hassan-Yari – Professor of military and strategic issues and international relations at Oman’s Sultan Qaboos University.
Asaf Ronel – Journalist at Haaretz newspaper and its former world news editor.