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Authorities deployed thousands of officers in the manhunt and cut off mobile internet for days in Punjab, a state of 30 million people.
They arrested more than 100 of his followers, transferring them to jails hundreds of kilometres away, and banned gatherings of more than four people in some areas.
Punjab, which is about 58 percent Sikh and 39 percent Hindu, was rocked by a violent separatist movement for a state called Khalistan in the 1980s and early 1990s, in which thousands of people died.
The Indian government conducted a botched 1984 raid on the Golden Temple in Amritsar, the holiest site in Sikhism. Hundreds of people were killed in what was called Operation Blue Star, which led to the assassination of Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi by her Sikh security guards a few months later.
Her assassination sparked an anti-Sikh pogrom in New Delhi and elsewhere that lasted several days and killed thousands more people, including children who were shot, beaten and burned to death.