Egyptian archaeologists working in the Nile Delta have uncovered dozens of rare pre-dynastic tombs dating to the period before Egypt’s Pharaonic kingdoms first emerged more than 5,000 years ago.
They also found tombs from the later Hyksos period (1650 to 1500 BC) when Western Asian migrants took over the country, putting an end to Egypt’s Middle Kingdom.
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The tombs include 68 from the Buto period, which began around 3300 BC, and five from the Naqada III period, which was just before the emergence of Egypt’s first dynasty around 3100 BC, according to a statement from the Ministry of Tourism and Antiquities released on Tuesday.
They also include 37 tombs from the time of the Hyksos, who first began migrating across the Sinai into Egypt around 1800 BC.
The findings in the Dakahlia governorate north of Cairo could shed light on two important transitional periods in ancient Egypt, Egyptologists said.
“This is an extremely interesting cemetery because it combines some of the earliest periods of Egyptian history with another important era, the time of the Hyksos,” said Salima Ikram, an Egyptologist at the American University in Cairo.
“Egyptologists are working to understand how the Egyptians and the Hyksos lived together and to what degree the former [sic] took on Egyptian traditions.”
The Buto tombs were oval-shaped pits with the corpses placed inside in a foetal position, mostly on their left sides with the head pointing west, the ministry statement said.
Some of the tombs from the Naqada period contained cylindrical and pear-shaped vessels.
The Hyksos tombs were mainly semi-rectangular with the corpses lying in an extended position, the head also facing west.
“The mission also found a group of ovens, stoves, remnants of mud-brick foundations, pottery vessels and amulets, especially scarabs, some of which were made of semi-precious stones and jewellery such as earrings,” the statement said.