India and Pakistan are once again squaring off over the disputed Himalayan region of Kashmir, less than a fortnight after a suicide bombing targeted troops in Indian-administered Kashmir, killing 42 and wounding dozens of others.
New Delhi said the attack was carried out by the Pakistan-based armed group, Jaish-e-Muhammad (JeM), and that Islamabad was ultimately responsible.
In retaliation, India has carried out what it calls “non-military pre-emptive action” on the Pakistani side of the divided region, and Islamabad says it shot down two Indian fighter jets, capturing one pilot.
Indian officials said they lost one plane and shot down a Pakistani F-16 fighter, and called on the Pakistani military to release the captured officer.
Kashmir is currently split between India and Pakistan, and the two nuclear-armed powers have fought two wars over the region.
Indian-administered Kashmir is also the scene of a decades-old armed campaign by rebel groups, who want the territory to either join Pakistan or become independent.
In this explainer video, Al Jazeera looks at the history behind the conflict, and the factors that continue to drive tensions.