The summit took place in Saudi Arabia on Sunday, a day after the coordinated attacks by the US, UK and France on three sites allegedly linked to the production of chemical weapons in Syria.
According to a summit spokesman, the leaders were to discuss the Syrian conflict but not the strikes that targeted the sites near Damascus as well as in the province of Homs.
The leaders called for an international probe while condemning the use of chemical weapons in Syria, Saudi Foreign Minister Adel al-Jubeir told reporters after the summit.
Saudi Arabia, Bahrain and Qatar have previously issued statements in support of the action while Egypt, Iraq and Lebanon expressed concern.
Al Jazeera’s senior political analyst Marwan Bishara said it was “odd” that the recent strikes in Syria were not on the agenda.
“It couldn’t get more odd,” he said. “It’s what you call a bottomless summit.”
Breaking with years of US policy, Trump also announced the US embassy would move to Jerusalem, drawing international condemnation and sparking a wave of heated protests around the world.
In response, Saudi Arabia renamed this year’s summit “Quds [Jerusalem] Summit”.
“We confirm that East Jerusalem is an inseparable part of the Palestinian land,” Saudi King Salman said.
The status of Jerusalem, which is home to holy religious sites and has particular significance for Muslims, Christians and Jews, has long remained a sensitive topic and one of the core issues in the Israel-Palestine conflict.
“Washington says it has taken the Jerusalem file off the negotiation table,” said Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas.
“This violates international law and is a precedent that we consider a major setback.”
The summit was the first since a major diplomatic dispute between Qatar and some its Gulf neighbours.
Saudi Arabia, the UAE, Bahrain – all members of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) – and Egypt cut diplomatic ties with Doha on June 5, 2017, and imposed a land, sea and air embargo, accusing it of supporting “terrorism”. Qatar has repeatedly denied the allegations.
Al-Jubeir, Saudi foreign minister, said Qatar was not on the agenda because “it’s not a big issue”.
“It’s not a big problem,” he said. “It’s a very, very small problem.”
While Qatar’s emir did not attend the summit, the country’s Arab League representative was present at the meeting.
“We’ve never seen the Arab world in such bad shape with leadership not able to cope with the challenges facing the Arab world, so much so that most of the points of contention that the Arab leaders don’t agree to were not put on the agenda and the ones that they agreed to were put on the agenda,” said Al Jazeera’s Bishara.