Thursday’s van attack in Barcelona, claimed by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), was the latest fatal assault on a European city.
Here are the major attacks on the continent over the past year:
August 17, 2017: Barcelona, Spain
At least 14 people were killed when a van rams into tourists gathering in the popular area of La Rambla in Barcelona.
June 19, 2017: London, United Kingdom
One man died after a vehicle ran over pedestrians close to two mosques in Finsbury Park. British prosecutors said the attacker was motived by “extreme political views and a personal hatred of Muslims”.
June 3, 2017: London, UK
A van rammed into a crowd on London Bridge, then the three assailants left the vehicle armed with knives and attacked people. Eight people were killed and about 50 wounded. Police shot dead the attackers. ISIL claimed responsibility.
May 22, 2017: Manchester, UK
A bombing at a pop concert by US star Ariana Grande in the British city of Manchester killed 22 people, including children. ISIL claimed responsibility.
April 7, 2017: Stockholm, Sweden
A truck ploughed into shoppers outside a busy department store in central Stockholm, killing five people including an 11-year-old girl. Police said an Uzbek suspect, who had been denied a residency permit in 2016, confessed.
April 3, 2017: St Petersburg, Russia
Five people were killed when a bomb ripped through an underground train in Russia’s second city of St Petersburg. A group suspected of links to al-Qaeda claimed the attack, which was blamed on a Russian suicide bomber born in Kyrgyzstan.
March 22, 2017: London, UK
Five people died when a man rammed his car into pedestrians on Westminster Bridge in London and then fatally stabbed a police officer outside parliament. The attacker was shot dead by police.
January 1, 2017: Istanbul, Turkey
An Uzbek gunman killed a policeman before entering the popular Reina nightclub and opening fire on people partying inside. At least 39 people celebrating New Year, mainly Arab tourists, were killed. The bloodshed was claimed by ISIL.
December 19, 2016: Berlin, Germany
A man hijacked a truck and ploughed into shoppers at a Christmas market in Berlin, killing 12 people. The attacker was shot dead by police in Milan, Italy four days later, and the attack was claimed by ISIL.
July 26, 2016: Normandy, France
Two men with alleged links to ISIL took several people hostage in an attack on a church in northern France. An 85-year-old priest was killed with a knife before French police entered and shot dead the attackers.
July 22, 2016: Munich, Germany
A gunman opened fire at a crowded Munich shopping centre and fast-food restaurant, shooting nine people dead before killing himself. The 18-year-old suspect was a German-Iranian and was obsessed with mass shootings, police said.
July 14, 2016: Nice, France
On Bastille Day, France’s national holiday, a man rammed a truck into a crowd of revellers at the Mediterranean resort of Nice, killing 86 people. He was shot dead by police, and ISIL claimed responsibility.
March 22, 2016: Brussels, Belgium
Suicide bombings killed 32 people and wounded 230 more at Brussels airport and Maelbeek metro station, near the EU headquarters. The attacks were claimed by ISIL.