Afghans are putting their own security systems in place to tackle the Taliban in the northern province of Kunduz.
Here local militiamen are resorting to a traditional form of community policing known as Arbakai, or anti-Taliban militias, to protect their land and people.
The militiamen are experienced in warfare. They are former Mujahedeen who fought against the Russians.
Now they are carrying out patrols day and night in their villages and beyond, filling a security vacuum the government has been unable to fill.
Al Jazeera’s Hoda Abdel-Hamid reports.