Most of them living in makeshift homes, unrecognised, and unwanted.
Thousands of Rohingya began fleeing Myanmar in the late 1970s and Bangladesh says there are currently about 28,000 living in camps in the southeast of the country.
Another 300,000 are thought to be living illegally outside the camps.
Early this year hundreds of Rohingya migrants washed up on the shores of Thai and Indonesian islands, having fled Myanmar in crowded fishing boats.
Many complained that they had been beaten and robbed by Myanmar soldiers, and then faced further abuse from Thai authorities who pushed them back out to sea with their boats’ engines disabled.