Cuba has restricted access to social media and messaging platforms including Facebook and WhatsApp, global internet monitoring firm NetBlocks has said, in the wake of the biggest anti-government protests in decades.
Thousands of Cubans joined demonstrations throughout the Communist-run country on Sunday to protest against a deep economic crisis that has seen shortages of basic goods and power outages. They were also protesting against the government’s handling of the coronavirus pandemic and curbs on civil liberties.
NetBlocks, based in London, said on its website on Tuesday that Facebook, WhatsApp, Instagram and Telegram in Cuba were partially disrupted on Monday and Tuesday.
“The pattern of restrictions observed in Cuba indicate an ongoing crackdown on messaging platforms used to organise and share news of protests in real-time,” said NetBlocks director Alp Toker. “At the same time, some connectivity is preserved to maintain a semblance of normality.”
Cuba’s government has said the demonstrations were orchestrated by counterrevolutionaries financed by the United States, manipulating frustration with an economic crisis largely caused by the decades-old US trade embargo.
The protests, rare in a country where public dissent is tightly controlled, had largely ended by Sunday evening, as security forces were deployed to the streets and President Miguel Diaz-Canel called on government supporters to go out and fight to defend their revolution.
But another protest flared late on Monday in the southern Havana suburb of La Guinera, where one man died and several others, including members of the security forces, were hospitalised with injuries, according to state-run media on Tuesday.
It did not say what caused the death. No other deaths and injuries have been officially confirmed so far.
Hundreds had taken to streets in La Guinera, shouting slogans such as “Down with communism” and “Freedom for the people of Cuba” according to two residents and video footage seen by the Reuters news agency. Some started throwing rocks at security forces who eventually responded with gunfire, said resident Waldo Herrera, 49.
“I think the Communists have lost control, they won’t have a solution to this situation,” he said. “The people are tired of so much humiliation, so much repression.”
A Reuters witness saw dozens of people carrying sticks departing La Guinera late on Monday.
Activists say the government is using so-called rapid-reaction brigades – government-organised bands of civilian recruits – to counter protesters.
Mobile internet disrupted
They also accuse the government of trying to disrupt communications. Introduced just over two years ago, mobile internet has been a key factor behind the protests, giving Cubans more of a platform to express their frustrations and enabling the word to get out quickly when people are on the street.
In the capital, there have been regular and atypical mobile internet outages since Sunday, according to Reuters’ witnesses.
Facebook Inc, which owns Instagram and WhatsApp, said that it was concerned about its services being restricted in Cuba, in a statement to Reuters late on Tuesday.
“We oppose shutdowns, throttling, and other disruptions of the internet that limit the debate of our community. We hope connectivity will be restored as soon as possible so that Cubans can communicate with family and friends,” said Joe Osborne, a Facebook spokesman.
Asked whether the government was intentionally restricting internet connections, Foreign Minister Bruno Rodriguez told a news briefing the situation was “complicated.” He said power outages could affect telecommunications services and “Cuba would never renounce the right to defend itself”.
Telegram did not immediately respond to a request for comment. Twitter Inc said it found no blocking of its service.
“Our weapon is the internet. If they take away the internet we are unarmed,” said Havana resident Gino Ocumares, as he tried but failed to connect to the internet at a government WiFi hotspot. “The government does not want people to see the truth.”
The protest in La Guinera was spearheaded by “antisocial and criminal elements” that had tried to reach the police station with the aim of attacking its officials and damaging infrastructure, said the state-run Cuban News Agency.
When security forces stopped them, they vandalised homes, set containers on fire, and damaged the suburb’s electrical wiring, attacking officials with stones and other objects, the agency said.
State-run media also reported on Tuesday that Raul Castro, who stepped down as head of the ruling Cuban Communist Party in April, attended a meeting on Sunday of the political bureau to address the “provocations”.
Diaz-Canel said in April he would continue to consult Castro on matters of utmost importance.
The Cuban Bishops Conference said in a statement it was worried that the response to protests over legitimate concerns would be “immobilism” rather than an attempt to resolve them, and even a counterproductive hardening of positions.
Reaction to the protest in Latin America split along ideological lines, with Mexico’s president blaming the US embargo for fomenting the unrest, while Chile and Peru urged the government to allow pro-democracy protests.
US President Joe Biden said on Monday that the United States “stands firmly with the people of Cuba as they assert their universal rights”.
State Department spokesman Ned Price called on the Havana government to open all means of communication, online and offline.
“Shutting down technology, shutting down information pathways – that does nothing to address the legitimate needs and aspirations of the Cuban people,” Price told a news briefing on Tuesday.