The energy industry is assessing damage caused by storm surges and high winds as Hurricane Laura cut a dangerous path across the coastlines of Texas and Louisiana, making landfall early on Thursday.
Oil and gas producers evacuated platforms and rigs in the Gulf of Mexico and companies shut down refineries in the storm’s path. More than 700,000 customers were without power in Louisiana and Texas, according to the website PowerOutage.Us, which tracks utility reports.
“We’re still waiting and hoping that the infrastructure in the communities in which we’re operating in Louisiana and far East Texas have not been significantly impacted by Hurricane Laura,” said Suzanne Lemieux, operations security and emergency response manager for the American Petroleum Institute, on a conference call with reporters. “While it did make landfall as a category four hurricane, we haven’t yet seen the damages that are going to help us understand what might have happened to the infrastructure.”
All states except Louisiana reported positive feedback on fuel availability and minimal station closures, and workers will refuel stations as soon as they are able, said Sherri Stone, vice president of the Petroleum Marketers Association of America, which represents 60,000 retail gasoline stations nationwide.
We’re still waiting and hoping that the infrastructure in the communities in which we’re operating in Louisiana and far East Texas have not been significantly impacted by Hurricane Laura.
“In order for the stations to reopen, roads must be cleared enough to get to the stations, electricity must be available and of course the employees and drivers must be available,” Stone said.
The oil industry has been hammered since the start of the year, struggling with low prices after the coronavirus decimated demand. At the same time, OPEC was flooding the market with crude, aiming – with success – to put American oil producers out of business.
Oil prices have recovered somewhat, but are still well below what most producers need to stay in business. Benchmark US crude was selling for about $43 a barrel on Thursday, while gasoline was selling for about $2.23 a gallon (3.79 litres), according to AAA. This year, 60 oil and gas companies have filed for bankruptcy protection, according to law firm Haynes and Boone.
The National Hurricane Center said the storm made landfall at 1am CDT on Thursday near Cameron, a 400-person community about 30 miles (48 kilometres) east of the Texas border. It had maximum sustained winds of 150 mph (240 kph), making it the most powerful hurricane to strike the US so far this year.
Forecasters warned the strong winds could rip apart buildings, level trees and toss vehicles like toys.
Experts say it is unlikely that the US will suffer from major oil or gasoline shortages due to the hurricane, as other regions fill in the gaps or turn to stored oil. But with high summer demand, there could be some disruptions.
“Inventories have been getting tighter through the summer,” said Peter McNally, global sector lead at Third Bridge, an investment research firm. “There is a buffer, but we still have a couple weeks left in the summer of higher demand, so we could see the surplus come off pretty quickly.”
Nearly half of the oil and gas platforms in the Gulf of Mexico – almost 300 – were evacuated by Wednesday, along with most of the offshore rigs. Producers shut in 84 percent of the oil produced in the region, taking about 1.6 million barrels per day off the market. The Gulf region usually produces about 15 percent of the oil in the US. Producers also shut in about 61 percent of the natural gas produced in the Gulf.
“Risk level is high,” said Stewart Glickman, energy equity analyst at CFRA, in an email. “Platforms out in the Gulf can be damaged, the refineries (mostly in low-lying land) can be flooded, especially if a storm lingers around for days like Hurricane Harvey did in 2017.”
While some oil production is temporarily suspended, experts say it is unlikely to cause problems for supply in the US. There has been a surplus of oil production this year, and demand for fuel is still well below pre-pandemic levels. Producers outside the region can pick up the slack.
More than half of US refining capacity is built along the Gulf Coast, a seeming magnet for such storms. Six refineries with a combined refining capacity of about 2.2 million barrels per day were shut down, including refineries operated by Valero, Total and Citgo.
Refineries built in hurricane regions may have reinforced their facilities after prior hurricanes, but there will likely be disruptions to some major refineries, said Jim Burkhard, head of IHS Markit research for crude oil markets.
In 2017, Hurricane Harvey stalled over Houston, dumping so much rain that flooding knocked out nearly a quarter of the nation’s refining capacity. That led to gasoline shortages, panic buying and long lines at service stations throughout Texas.