History has the answer for the turbulent Middle East of today.
With deep mutual distrust, Obama and Karzai consider their legacies.
Attention may now turn from the Arab uprisings to Afghanistan as the US and NATO forces prepare to leave in 2014.
US commando raids in Libya and Somalia show American power, and its limits, where anarchy rules after state destruction.
Despite Afghanistan, Iraq, Libya and Syria, the idea of American exceptionalism remains embedded in the US psyche.
Parliament’s rejection of Syria intervention will have important repercussions in Britain as well as abroad.
Excessive ideological zeal, immoderate sincerity and determination to fight to the finish are fuelling Syria’s crisis.
Behind the bloody conflict in Egypt is a state of denial among competing actors of each other’s place in society.
The military overthrow of President Morsi is not a coup for democracy, but an old remedy that has long failed.