Any financial aid to Lebanon should be tied to a material commitment by its elites to undertake long-needed reforms.
Adeel Malik is Globe Fellow in the Economies of Muslim Societies and Associate Professor of Development Economics at the University of Oxford. He is t... he co-editor along with Ishac Diwan and Izak Atiyas of Crony Capitalism in the Middle East: Business and Politics Since Liberalization published by Oxford University Press in 2019.
Diversification of Middle Eastern economies is more a political than an economic challenge.
And what is the solution?
Saudi Arabia’s diversification effort will prove challenging with or without an Aramco IPO.