Barcelona, Spain - Sleep has been hard to come by in Barcelona this week - but not on account of the city's fabled nightlife.
Instead, the narrow streets and old squares of Barcelona have reverberated to a crepuscular cacophony of banging pots and pans. These noisy protests - called cacerolazo, literally "casserole" - started recently after Spain's constitutional court suspended a proposed non-binding poll on Catalan independence.
A vote, however, will go ahead as planned on Sunday, Catalan President Artur Mas has said. In Barcelona, cacerolazo protesters have vowed to keep beating their kitchenware until it does.
|Spain suspends Catalonia independence vote|
"All peoples have the right to decide their future," Mas told reporters on Wednesday. The vote was initially intended as a legally binding referendum on independence from Spain, but was downgraded to a symbolic "consultation" after an intervention from the country's constitutional court.
Now, it has been watered down further. Sunday's poll will be "a participatory process" with no formal standing, run entirely by volunteers instead of the Catalan government.
Future of Catalonia
Spanish Prime Minister Mariano Rajoy has called any attempt to hold a vote on leaving Spain "anti-democratic", saying Spain's constitution prevents any region from unilaterally taking decisions that affect all Spaniards.
Madrid and Barcelona have been at loggerheads since July 2010, when a new statute on Catalan autonomy was struck down by Spain's constitutional court.
Support for independence has risen dramatically in the wake of what was widely seen as an attempt to curb the power of Catalan's regional parliament. Just under half of Catalans are in favour of leaving Spain, according to opinion polls last month. More than one-fifth of respondents said they were recent converts to the nationalist cause.
Rocio Martinez-Sampere Rodrigo, a socialist parliamentarian at the Catalan assembly, is opposed to independence but says a referendum is needed to settle the future of Catalonia, a region of 7.5 million people that stretches for 400km from the French border to neighbouring Valencia.
The Spanish constitution is quite clear on this point, the unity of Spain cannot be questioned.
Martinez-Sampere Rodrigo, who favours a federal arrangement for Catalonia, blames the Spanish prime minister for unwittingly building Catalan support for leaving Spain.
"Rajoy has never approached this in a political way, he is just saying 'no, no, no' to everything," she told Al Jazeera. "If you say 'no' to everything, people will say the only solution is independence."
But Rafael Lopez, a Catalan member of parliament from Rajoy's conservative Popular Party, said any referendum on independence would be illegal.
"The Spanish constitution is quite clear on this point, the unity of Spain cannot be questioned," Lopez said.
Sunday's poll will have "no legal validity nor democratic guarantee", Lopez added.
Nevertheless, Catalan nationalists have been busy preparing for the vote. Television adverts and mailshots have carried election information. Pro-independence memes have ignited on social media.
An estimated 40,000 people have volunteered to staff polling centres across Catalonia. Expatriates in around 40 cities worldwide - including London, Paris, Mexico City, and Montreal - will be able to vote at offices of international Catalan delegations.
The ballot will have the same two-part question that was planned for the suspended referendum. The first is whether voters want Catalonia to be a state. The second is whether they want it to be an independent state. As in the recent independence referendum in Scotland, 16 and 17-year olds will be able to participate, too.
The clamour for Catalan independence has grown amid Spain's financial crisis and widespread frustration with the central government's reluctance to grant more powers to the Catalan parliament, which was re-established in 1980. Recent attempts by Madrid to interfere with Catalan education have further stoked passions.
Catalonia is the country's most prosperous and most economically productive region and accounts for about a quarter of Spain's taxes - far more than its share of Spain's population.
Catalonia's fiscal deficit - the difference between what it pays to Madrid and, after taking some funds to pay state costs, the money it gets back - runs at between 7 and 10 percent of the region's GDP. Such disparities have deepened resentment.
'V' for vote
On September 11 this year, Catalonia's national holiday, hundreds of thousands of independence supporters converged on Barcelona, forming a huge "V" - for vote - in Catalan red and yellow. Now nationalists are hoping a large demonstration of strength on Sunday will show both Madrid and the world that their demands are not going away.
"The goal is to keep the pressure on Madrid and to demonstrate to the world that the process is alive and it's not just an invention of Artur Mas," said Marc Vidal, foreign editor of pro-independence Catalan newspaper ARA.
I think the fact that the Spanish government is making it so difficult to voice your opinion is making people angry, and making people determined to vote.
The vast majority are expected to vote "yes", but turnout will be crucial. Two million votes, about 30 percent of the electorate, would be a "big result" for the nationalists, said Vidal.
Liz Castro, a supporter of Catalan independence in Barcelona, said the attitude of the Spanish government will only strengthen nationalists' resolve to turnout on Sunday.
"I think the fact that the Spanish government is making it so difficult to voice your opinion is making people angry, and making people determined to vote," Castro said.
Supporters of the union with Spain argued independence would be disastrous for Catalonia - and for Europe.
"If regions like Catalonia, the Flemish region, Lombardy, Veneto, some German states or Corsica decide to secede, Europe would be cut into pieces, and that would go against its philosophy," said Josep Ramon Bosch, president of pro-union association Societat Civil Catalana.
While there is little doubt about the outcome of Sunday's consultation, a long-term solution to the Catalan question is much less clear cut. Spain's national politics has been turned on its head following a poll this week that put Podemos, a youthful leftist-only party formed in January, ahead of both Rajoy's Popular Party and the main opposition Socialist Party nationally.
Some Catalan commentators expect Artur Mas to call early elections to the Catalan parliament, in an effort to secure a resounding majority in favour of independence and increase pressure on Madrid. But Mas himself has been weakened by a tax-evasion scandal involving the founder of his ruling Convergence and Union party. A recent poll showed the more fervently pro-independence Republican Left of Catalonia well ahead among Catalan voters.
For Catalan nationalists, however, the big question is how Madrid will react to the latest salvo in the campaign for a referendum on independence.
"There is a general feeling that the Spanish government doesn't know what is going on here," said independence activist Castro. "I don't think they really realise what people are ready to do here."