Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu is in Russia for talks with President Vladimir Putin.
The conflict in Syria is likely to top the agenda.
But the Israelis are also concerned about Iran and Hezbollah's expanding ground operations in the Golan Heights, which Tel Aviv considers a major security threat.
Russia's leadership will also receive official visits by the leaders of Turkey and Germany.
Russian President Putin and Israeli leader Netanyahu are scheduled to meet to discuss "joint efforts against international terrorism" and "key aspects of the Palestinian-Israeli settlement," according to a Kremlin statement.
Meanwhile, Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov is expected to meet with his German counterpart, Sigmar Gabriel, particularly to discuss the simmering conflict in Ukraine. Gabriel and Putin might also meet later in the day.
Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan is also expected to arrive in Moscow on Thursday, according to announcements by Turkish officials, but his scheduled meeting on bilateral relations with Putin will be on Friday, the Kremlin said in a statement.
Putin and Erdogan are expected to discuss the conflict in Syria, as well as construction of the Turkish Stream gas pipeline and the Akkuyu Nuclear Power Plant, the Kremlin said.
Source: DPA news agency