East Timor is celebrating 10 years of independence, a decade that has brought good relations with its two crucial neighbours.
Indonesia is no longer seen as a threat, and Australian troops on Timorese soil are no longer thought necessary.
Taur Matan Ruak's task as the nation's new president is to oversee the next stage of East Timor's transition from peace, to relative prosperity.
On Saturday, the former freedom fighter was sworn-in and his challenge officially began.
Al Jazeera's Andrew Thomas reports from Sydney.