Quebec's cultural nationalists have been struggling to keep French the dominant language in the province,
The defenders of the language have helped lobby for government legislation that has been put into place requiring French to be used on signs, in education and even restaurants.
Opponents call the laws overzealous - as in the case of a restaurant owner who received a legal notice to change the word "pasta" on his menu to "pates".
Now a growing immigrant population that is learning French, but choosing to live and work in English, is causing concern.
Al Jazeera's Daniel Lak reports from Montreal.