Somalia's warring factions have been accused of drawing children into the ongoing conflict - to fight, as spies, or as human shields.
A Human Rights Watch report says schools are used to store weapons or as bases to fight from.
The report singles out al-Shabab for committing some of the worst abuses.
The Islamist group has at times even celebrated the role that children play in its organisation.
Peter Greste reports from Nairobi, Kenya.