South Sudan has officially become an independent state.
But as it celebrates its liberation from the north, the orphan state of Southern Kordofan is preparing for a long war with its adoptive parent in Khartoum.
The roots of the conflict lie in the historical marginalisation of the Nuba people, who inhabit the oil rich Southern Kordofan region, and who threw their lot in with the rebel forces of the south during the war with the north.
There are now reports of civilians being killed, and the UN chief Ban Ki-Moon says he is extremely concerned about the situation there.
Callum MacRae reports in this Al Jazeera exclusive.