Rory McIlroy suffered a Ryder Cup hangover as he struggled to an opening round of 73 in the Alfred Dunhill Links Championship.
The world number one, who helped Europe ease to victory over the United States last weekend, made one birdie and two bogeys at Carnoustie, one of the three Scottish courses hosting the tournament.
Scotland's Stephen Gallacher, who lost both his matches at the Ryder Cup, found his form with a four-under-par 68, four shots behind leader Oliver Wilson of England.
Victorious Ryder Cup captain Paul McGinley had to settle for a 72 on his return to action after masterminding the win over the US at Gleneagles.
Frenchman Victor Dubuisson, who contributed 2 1/2 points to Europe's victory as a rookie, opened with a 71, three shots better than another struggling Ryder Cup team mate, Martin Kaymer of Germany.
Former British Open champion Padraig Harrington carded a 66 to climb to joint third place on the leaderboard, level with fellow Irishman Shane Lowry, one stroke behind Frenchman Raphael Jacquelin and two adrift of Wilson.