England lost early wickets to slump to 16 for two at close of play against South Africa at Lord's on Sunday, as their pursuit of 346 to win the third and final Test and square the series started badly.
Jonathan Trott was six not out in 54 arduous minutes and Ian Bell had four, after openers Alastair Cook (3) and Andrew Strauss (1) both fell lbw to Vernon Philander.
England, who need a further 330, were given a minimum 103 overs to register what would be their highest fourth innings score to win a Test, and also the most on the ground.
Only West Indies have managed 300 or more (344 for one in 1984) in the fourth innings to win a Lord's Test.
So history is against England, who must win if they are to draw the series 1-1 and prevent South Africa from taking the world number one ranking from them.
South Africa first innings 309
England first innings 315
South Africa second innings (o’night: 145-3)
A Petersen lbw b Broad 24
G Smith lbw b Swann 23
H Amla b Finn 121
J Kallis lbw b Finn 31
D Steyn c Taylor b Broad 9
AB de Villiers c Strauss b Finn 43
J Rudolph c Prior b Finn 11
JP Duminy not out 26
V Philander c Bairstow b Anderson 35
M Morkel st Prior b Swann 9
I Tahir b Anderson 1
Total (all out, 124.2 overs, 539 mins) 351
Fall of wickets: 1-46 (Smith), 2-50 (Petersen), 3-131 (Kallis), 4-164
(Steyn), 5-259 (Amla), 6-268 (De Villiers), 7-282 (Rudolph), 8-336 (Philander), 9-348 (Morkel), 10-351 (Tahir)
England second innings
A Strauss lbw b Philander 1
A Cook lbw b Philander 3
J Trott not out 6
I Bell not out 4
Total (2 wkts, 13 overs, 60 mins) 16
Fall of wickets: 1-5 (Cook), 2-6 (Strauss)
It was the worst possible start for England and Strauss, whose 100th Test appearance was memorable for the wrong reasons.
While his team were battling to stay in the match, his faltering off-field relationship with batsman Kevin Pietersen was being debated in the media.
Cook departed to the eighth ball of the innings as Philander shaped it back into the left hander.
Umpire Simon Taufel made the right call and Cook did not bother to review. Neither did Strauss, who played no stroke to another delivery moving into him.
South Africa were bowled out for 351 in their second innings in the evening session of the fourth day, as Hashim Amla made an assured 121 for his 16th Test century and ensured England's target was a stiff one.
England did have opportunities to finish the innings sooner.
AB de Villiers was dropped by James Anderson at short midwicket off Graeme Swann when on eight, and went on to score 43. Had de Villiers been taken, the score would have been 177 for five.
Amla was dropped on two by wicketkeeper Matt Prior the previous day.
Even when England threatened to end the innings sooner through a decisive burst of fast bowling by Steven Finn, who claimed three wickets for 14 runs in 29 balls, the Proteas always hit back.
Amla was eventually bowled by Finn when the ball held its line up the famous Lord's slope.
De Villiers went next, edging to Strauss at first slip. That meant Strauss became England's highest Test catcher as a fieldsman with 121.
Jacques Rudolph was the third of Finn's strikes, edging to Prior for 11. Finn ended with four for 74.
That was the time when England needed to be ruthless and end the innings. But along came JP Duminy (26 not out) and Philander (35) to put on 54.
It was the second occasion in the match that both had held England up after they each made 61 in the first innings.