None of the great achievements of modern science would be possible without the mathematisation of science and the development of algebra.
The word algebra stems from the Arabic word al-jabr, which has its roots in the title of a 9th century manuscript written by the mathematician Al-Khwarizmi.
Al-Khwarizmi's Kitab al-mukhtasar fi hisab al-jabr wal-muqabala (The Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing) was a pioneering piece of work - offering practical answers for land distribution, rules on inheritance and distributing salaries.
In this episode of Science in the Golden Age, theoretical physicist, Jim al-Khalili explores Al-Khwarizmi's 9th century treatise that also underpins the science of flight and the engineering behind the fastest car in the world.
Originally Persian, Al-Khwarizmi spent his academic life in the city of Baghdad from where the Abbasid caliphs ruled and established the Bayt al-Hikma (The House of Wisdom), a renowned centre of learning.
With Professor Ramazan Sesen and Dr Peter Starr, Jim discusses the origins of the House of Wisdom and how the translation of Greek, Persian and other texts was central to the progressive scientific and mathematical revolution that originated in Baghdad.
And, in the Sulemaniye Library in Istanbul, Jim uncovers a rare text by Al-Kindi, a philosopher, polymath, and musician – and perhaps the world's earliest mathematical code breaker.
Source: Al Jazeera