It's been the dominant issue ever since the British handed over control of Hong Kong to China nearly 20 years ago. How much independence should the territory have?
Now, thousands of people are protesting against what they see as Chinese interference.
It began with two newly elected politicians who refused to back Beijing during their swearing-in ceremony.
The two set off a fierce debate after displaying a sign reading "Hong Kong is not China" during the ceremony. China vowed to intervene.
Politicians Baggio Leung and Yau Wai-ching may now be disqualified from the Legislative Council.
Now there are fears Beijing is trying to undermine Hong Kong's judicial independence, stripping the territory of its autonomy.
So what does this mean for Hong Kong's political future?
Presenter: Folly Bah Thibault
Emily Lau - Chairperson of the Democratic Party of Hong Kong and former member of the Hong Kong Legislative Council.
Victor Gao - Director of the China National Association of International Studies.
Roderic Wye - Associate Fellow in the Asia programme at Chatham House, the Royal Insititue of International Affairs, London.