Thousands of protesters gathered outside Congress on Sunday, some in tears and some euphoric, as the votes were counted.
One MP dedicated his vote to a man who had tortured Rousseff under Brazil's military government.
She faces accusations that she hid the extent of Brazil's budget deficit during her re-election campaign in 2014.
Many who have voted against her in Congress are implicated in corruption scandals.
So is Rousseff truly a crook? Or just a scapegoat?
And if she leaves office, what's next for Brazil?
Presenter: Hazem Sika
Joao Paulo Peixoto - Political Scientist at the University of Brasilia.
Mark Langevin - Director of the Advisory Firm BrazilWorks.
Francisco Dominguez - Head of the Latin American Studies Research Group at Middlesex University.
Source: Al Jazeera