It's a dangerous enough journey in the best of conditions. 

With winter setting in across Europe, refugees escaping war and hardship in the Middle East and Africa are now more vulnerable than ever.

It is not stopping some from feeling that they have no choice but to leave their homeland.

France has intensified air strikes in Syria following ISIL attacks in Paris. Russian air strikes are also targetting ISIL. With more military action comes more civilian deaths.

The majority escaping to Europe come from refugee camps in countries neighbouring Syria. Millions are living in temporary shelters, dependent on aid agencies for food and with little hope of getting jobs.

No surprise then they are desperate to move on.

What difficulties do they face once they do?

Presenter: Laura Kyle

Guests:

Glada Lahn - Senior Research Fellow at Chatham House.

Annie Sparrow - Assistant Professor of Public Health at Mount Sinai School of Medicine.

Abir Kourani - Syrian refugee in Sweden.

Source: Al Jazeera