It's been just 10 months since the Charlie Hebdo attacks brought panic and bloodshed to the streets of Paris.
And now as the year draws to a close Parisians have woken up to a state of emergency, following a series of coordinated attacks across the capital, that killed at least 129 people.
Security was stepped up in Paris following the attacks in January. But many people will now be asking if the new measures have had any effect in keeping France safe.
Gunmen carried out just the kind of attacks that the security services had long feared, using automatic weapons and suicide belts in crowded areas on a busy Friday night.
French President Francois Hollande said Friday's events were "an act of war", and blamed ISIL for planning and coordinating the attacks from abroad.
So, where does France go from here? And how does the government restore a sense of security?
Presenter: Adrian Finighan
Julien Theron - Political Scientist at the University of Versailles and Paris.
Francesco Ragazzi - Associate Scholar at the Centre for International Studies and Research.
Virginie Guiraudon - Research Professor, Centre for European Studies in Paris.
Source: Al Jazeera