They were denied self-rule after the First World War, and they are the largest ethnic group in the world without their own independent state.
But the Kurdish people continue to dream of independence.
Kurdish forces are playing a key role in the war against ISIL.
And now the jailed leader of Kurdish rebels is kick-starting a stalled peace process and calling for a new era in Turkish-Kurdish relations.
So what does this mean for the Kurds' dream of independence? And how much does a Kurdish state depend on Ankara?
Presenter: Sami Zeidan
Galip Dalay - Regular contributor for the German Marshall Fund
Bilal Sambur - Chairman at the Institute for Political, Social and Economic Studies
Seevan Saeed - Specialist in Kurdish-Turkish conflicts
Source: Al Jazeera