Delegates from Afghanistan and neighbouring countries are in Istanbul to discuss the country's security. It comes as international forces prepare to hand control of more Afghan districts and towns over to the government in Kabul.
The United States has also sent representatives to the conference, but many challenge the idea that the Afghan government is ready for this responsibility.
At the opening of this conference Afghan president Hamid Karzai has once again warned of the threat of terrorism.
But just who is calling the shots in war torn Afghanistan? And is security possible without talking to Taliban?
Inside Story presenter James Bays, discusses with guests: Waheullah Rahmani, executive director of Kabul Center for Strategic Studies; Aminullah Habibi, research fellow at the British Defence Academy; and Naveed Ahmed, an investigative journalist.