The Turkish government says it has launched a comprehensive plan to address the "Kurdish question."
The Kurdistan worker's party, known as the PKK, has been calling for an independent state of Kurdistan since the 1970's.
They have been labelled a terrorist organisation by the US and the EU.
Now Abdullah Ocalan, the PKK's imprisoned founder, says he will release a road map for laying down arms and eventual peace with Turkey.
His four-point plan is expected to include a description of why Turkey, in particular, should solve the Kurdish issue.
It will suggest that Turkey establishes alliances with the Kurds in Iraq and Syria, and will outline the steps necessary for both short- and long-term solutions.
And crucially it is expected to give the conditions that must be met before PKK fighters disarm.
Is it a chance for real peace? And what will it take for the Turkish government and the PKK to reconcile, after decades of armed conflict?
Inside Story presenter Maryam Nemazee is joined by Ibrahim Kalin, the director of the Foundation for Political, Economic and Social Research (SETA), Allen Collinsworth, an analyst on Turkish affairs and founder of the Fara Group, which consults for Western companies operating in Turkey, and Ibrahim Dogus, the chairman of North London's Kurdish and Turkish Community Centre.
This episode of Inside Story airs from Monday, August 10, 2009 at 1730GMT and 2230GMT, with repeats on Tuesday at 0430GMT and 1030GMT.