I think it's going to cost them all in - €28bn ($30bn) before tax, but it's very hard to estimate, especially the cost of potential volume losses, net pricing or litigation issues, especially in the US.
The scandal at Volkswagen has failed to die down more than one month after the German car giant admitted to rigging its diesel vehicles with software capable of tricking emissions tests.
This week, Europe's biggest car maker announced its first quarterly loss in at least 15 years, with operating losses of about $3.9bn.
Sparking a massive loss of faith in the brand, millions of drivers could demand further compensation over the cheating scandal.
Arndt Ellinghorst, Senior Managing Director Global and Head of Automotive Research at the advisory firm Evercore, joins the programme to discuss the crisis.
Source: Al Jazeera