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Gaza Fixer: A chronicle of survival
06 Jan 2011 15:22 GMT
Africa(***)s largest country faces a break-up between the predominantly Muslim north and the Christian south
On January 9, 2011, the people of southern Sudan will vote on whether to become an independent state [Peter Moszynski]
The referendum is part of a 2005 peace deal which ended decades of civil war which left two million people dead and many more displaced [Peter Moszynski]
Now, with the South likely to secede, Sudan(***)s borders and history may have to be rewritten [Peter Moszynski]
The Sud is one of the world(***)s largest swamps, covering up to 40,000 square kilometers around the border area between northern and southern Sudan [Peter Moszynski]
For thousands of years grasses and rafts of water hyacinths and papyrus had merged the former shifting labyrinths of channels - a natural barrier to any boat attempting to navigate the Nile [Peter Moszynski]
It was not until 1839 that an Egyptian-sponsored expedition finally broke through - opening South Sudan to slave traders [Peter Moszynski]
In the late 19th century, the Mahdi liberated Khartoum and established a Sudanese government there in the world(***)s first Islamic revolution [GALLO/GETTY]
But soon the British returned, and in partnership with Egypt effectively ruled the country until independence in 1956 [Peter Moszynski]
Even before independence the signs were clear that the South was uneasy with a northern dominated administration [Peter Moszynski]
Sudan(***)s north-south civil war was Africa(***)s longest running civil conflict, flaring first in 1955 [Peter Moszynski]
The South might be rich in oil and farmland, but most benefits have gone to the North, especially to Khartoum [Peter Moszynski]
Khartoum is the modern vibrant capital city of a country which, despite US-imposed sanctions, has in recent years enjoyed one of the fastest growing economies in Africa [Peter Moszynski]
But surrounding the city is a ring of shanty towns referred to locally as the "Black Belt" [Peter Moszynski]
Despite the country(***)s oil-wealth and the booming capital city, the average salary in the North is just $3 a day [Peter Moszynski]
Fifty per cent of the South(***)s population earn less than $1 per day [Peter Moszynski]
Ninety-two per cent of women in the South cannot read or write, and less than two per cent of children who enroll in primary school finish their studies [Peter Moszynski]
Seventy-five per cent of the people in the South have no access to basic healthcare [Peter Moszynski]
The US has put Sudan under sanctions, which is blocking many companies who are keen to capture the country(***)s oil and minerals [Peter Moszynski]
Sudan is home to a number of nomadic tribes, many of whom cross the line of the proposed border to feed and water their cattle [Peter Moszynski]
Each tribe has its own culture, traditions and way of life [Peter Moszynski]
Many southerners believe they are ethnically or religiously distinct from the mostly Arab and Muslim north [Peter Moszynski]
Many in the South hope splitting from the North will give them the opportunity to build a new African nation [Peter Moszynski]
Others fear the referendum and a following secession will spark a bloody battle over the country(***)s resource-rich land [Peter Moszynski]
Many southern Sudanese displaced by conflict are finally returning home [Peter Moszynski]
Now that the South is at peace, many southerners take the chance to escape discrimination and hardship in to find a better life in their homeland [Peter Moszynski]
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War & Conflict, Human Rights, Politics
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Business & Economy, Politics, Poverty & Development
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Human Rights, Poverty & Development, Environment
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Italy, Crime, Europe
The System examines two cases where prosecutorial misconduct may have led to wrongful imprisonment.
Crime, Law, United States
The FIFA presidential candidate explains why he is challenging Sepp Blatter and how he plans to reform the organisation.
Sport, Middle East, FIFA
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Arts & Culture, Algeria, Music
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Sport, Football, Corruption