Middle East
Egypt's Coptic Pope Shenouda dies at 88
Leader of Middle East's largest Christian community oversaw 40 years of expansion amid rare clashes with government.
Last Modified: 17 Mar 2012 22:11
Shenouda endured more than three years of exile in the 1980s but later rarely fought with Mubarak's regime [EPA]

Egypt's Coptic Pope Shenouda III, the leader of the Middle East's largest Christian minority, has died at 88, state television and church sources said.

The cause of death was not immediately clear, but for years Shenouda had suffered from back and liver problems, and health issues forced him to cancel his weekly sermon on Wednesday.

Named pope in 1971, Shenouda led the Coptic Orthodox Church through 40 years of quiet expansion, including a strong growth in North America, but came under criticism in his native Egypt during the later years of his papacy.

Most of the church's more than 10 million members are in Egypt, where Copts are believed to make up around 10 per cent of the population.

For most Egyptian Copts, Shenouda was the only spiritual leader they have ever known, a beloved figure who nonetheless became controversial for rarely opposing a government that was often accused of promoting Muslims' rights over those of Copts.

Naguib Sawiris, a liberal Coptic Christian political leader and billionaire telecommunications tycoon, wrote on Twitter that Shenouda had been "an icon of wisdom, intellect and knowledge, a man of courage and honour".

Exile and return

Shenouda, who worked as a journalist before spending years as a monk and being elected pope, entered his tenure with a political agenda, set on reforming the church from within, Al Jazeera's Sherine Tadros reported from Cairo.

In the 1980s, Shenouda spent more than three years in exile in a desert monastery after former president Anwar Sadat stripped him of his powers by decree.

At the time, Shenouda had been pressing for more rights for the Coptic community and trying to preserve his congregation from escalating attacks by Muslim extremists.

Former president Hosni Mubarak canceled Sadat's decree in 1985, and Shenouda returned to lead Christmas Mass before a crowd of thousands in Cairo's St Mark's Cathedral.

After returning, Shenouda oversaw the growth of the church in the United States and South America. He emphasised Christian unity and dialogue between churches throughout the world.

'Beloved children'

In recent years, some Egyptian Copts had begun to express criticism of Shenouda for not speaking out on Coptic rights, particularly as sectarian violence seemed to increase.

"It was really after the former president Hosni Mubarak then took power that you saw a more cordial relationship ... and at that point people began to criticize the pope," Tadros said.

Although Shenouda gave limited praise to Egypt's revolution, he often encouraged protesters to go home, both before and after Mubarak's fall, and he pleaded for stability. 

The later part of his papacy was marked by co-operation with Mubarak and, after the revolt, the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces. When sectarian clashes began to erupt after Mubarak's removal, including church burnings throughout the country, Shenouda praised the military leadership for helping to rebuild.

But in October, when soldiers brutally dispersed a Coptic protest outside state media headquarters, leaving at least 26 people dead, Shenouda declared that those killed were martyrs and blamed the military for the violence.

"These martyrs are our beloved children and their blood does not come cheap," he said.

"I, along with all the bishops, priests and monks, will pray for them. And we know that God will forgive their sins."

Al Jazeera and agencies
Topics in this article
Featured on Al Jazeera
The author argues that in the new economy, it's people, not skills or majors, that have lost value.
Colleagues of detained Al Jazeera journalists press demands for their release, 100 days after their arrest in Egypt.
Mehdi Hasan discusses online freedoms and the potential of the web with Wikipedia founder Jimmy Wales.
A tight race seems likely as 814 million voters elect leaders in world's largest democracy next week.
A vocal minority in Ukraine's east wants to join Russia, and Kiev has so far been unable to put down the separatists.
Iran's government has shifted its take on 'brain drain' but is the change enough to reverse the flow?
Deadly attacks on anti-mining activists in the Philippines part of a global trend, according to new report.
Activists say 'Honor Diaries' documentary exploits gender-based violence to further an anti-Islamic agenda.
As Syria's civil war escalates along the Turkish border, many in Turkey are questioning the country's involvement.
join our mailing list