Ousted Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak and his two sons have pleaded not guilty to charges of murder and corruption during the opening of an historic trial on Wednesday in Cairo.
The Mubaraks are being tried along with the former interior minister, Habib al-Adly, and six former high-ranking security chiefs, nearly six months after the government was toppled in an 18-day popular uprising.
A business executive and Mubarak confidant, Hussein Salem, has reportedly been arrested in Spain and is being tried in absentia.
The charges against them are as follows:
Hosni Mubarak, former president
Accused of conspiring in the premeditated and attempted murder of protesters during the uprising, abusing power to amass wealth, and allowing below-market price gas sales to Israel.
If convicted, Mubarak could face the death penalty.
Mubarak has been under arrest for several months in a hospital in the Red Sea resort town of Sharm el-Sheikh after allegedly suffering a heart attack. His lawyer, Farid el-Deeb, also says he has cancer.
Deeb has argued that Mubarak did not sanction the brutal crackdown on protesters that left more than 850 people dead and thousands injured.
Gamal and Alaa Mubarak, sons of Hosni Mubarak
Accused of abuse of power and illegal amassing of wealth.
Once the presumed heir of Egypt's presidency, Gamal Mubarak, 47, now shares a cage with his elder brother, Alaa. The brothers are accused of corruption and face years in jail if convicted.
Alaa led a quieter life, but he too has been accused of having taken advantage of his father's position to amass great wealth through corrupt business dealings.
The brothers are charged with accepting five villas worth more than $5 million under a "sham sales contract".
The brothers have been detained in Cairo's Tora prison since their arrest, along with a number of former regime officials.
Gamal has a young daughter by his wife Khadija, and Alaa had two children by wife Haidi Rassekh.
Habib el-Adly, former interior minister, and six former aides
Charged with conspiring to commit the premeditated killing of protesters, and also attempted murder of protesters.
Adly has already been sentenced to 12 years in jail in a separate corruption case.
His six aides are:
Ahmed Mohamed Ramzi Abdel Rasheed - assistant to the minister of interior and former head of the Central Security Forces
Adly Mostafa Fayed - former first-degree assistant of the minister to the interior for general security and director of the Public Security Bureau
Hassan Mohamed Abdel Rahman Youssef - first-degree assistant to the minister of the interior and former director of State Security Investigations
Ismail Mohamed Abdel Gawwad Al-Shaer - former security chief for Cairo governorate
Osama Youssef Ismael El-Marasy - former security chief for Giza governorate and former assistant to the minister of the interior for training affairs
Omar Abdel Aziz Hassan Faramawy - former security chief for 6th of October city
Hussein Salem, businessman and Mubarak confidant
Accused of corruption and illegally amassing wealth.
Salem fled to spain during the revolution and has reportedly been arrested there. He is being tried in absentia.
Salem, a shareholder in the Eastern Mediterranean Gas company, faces charges that he provided the villas to Gamal and Alaa Mubarak in exchange for free state-owend land, and that he authorised below-market sales of gas to Israel.