Protesters also took to the streets in Malaysia and Australia, which added its voice on Tuesday to worldwide condemnation of the violence.
"The Australian government condemns any use of violence under the sorts of circumstances that we have seen," Kevin Rudd, the Australian prime minister, said.
More protests were scheduled in Europe later on Tuesday.
Turkey has called for a strong international response to Monday's raid.
In a speech to legislators on Tuesday, the country's prime minister said Israel should be "punished" for its "bloody massacre" on the flotilla, and warned that no one should test Turkey's patience.
"It is no longer possible to cover up or ignore Israel's lawlessness. The international community must from now on say 'enough is enough'," Recep Tayyip Erdogan said.
"Dry statements of condemnation are not enough ... There should be results."
He said the Israeli action was an attack "on international law, the conscience of humanity and world peace".
Anita McNaught, Al Jazeera's correspondent in Istanbul, said Erdogan's speech was "extraordinarily strong".
She said he "mentioned the unmentionable, saying that Israel acts because it has powerful friends".
Ergodan said he would be speaking to Barack Obama, the US president, later in the day.
Monday's raid has dramatically escalated tensions between Turkey and Israel, with Ankara's ruling AK Party saying ties will never be the same.
The country has recalled its ambassador to Israel and cancelled three joint military exercises with Israel and sent three planes to Israel to bring back around 20 of its nationals wounded during the violence.
Meanwhile, the UN Human Rights Council debated Israel's raid on the flotilla, at the request of Arab and Islamic states.
A draft resolution sponsored by Pakistan and Sudan alongside the Palestinians "condemns in the strongest terms possible the outrageous attack by the Israeli forces" and says independent investigators should be sent to review possible violations of international law related to the incident.
The non-binding resolution also calls on Israel to ensure that food, fuel and medical assistance reaches the Gaza Strip.
It will be put to a vote by the council on Wednesday.