About 150 demonstrators gathered on Friday in the Zamalek neighbourhood, where many embassies are located.
Police trucks and hundreds of officers in riot gear formed a cordon along the streets to block their way to the Algerian embassy, a witness told Reuters news agency.
Passing cars hooted and some waved Egyptian flags in support of the demonstrators. Stones and broken glass from the previous night's violence littered the street.
About 2,000 demonstrators gathered during the night and many began throwing bottles and stones after a police charge to break up the crowd. Two police vehicles were overturned.
Sudan hosted the Egypt-Algeria tie amid unprecedented security, deploying thousands of police to prevent trouble.
An earlier match played in Egypt last Saturday also triggered violence, with the Algerian players complaining that their team bus was attacked by Egyptian supporters.
Reprisal attacks reportedly followed in Algeria, with Cairo alleging that Egyptian firms and businesses were targeted in Algiers, the Algerian capital.