Peres also accused Tehran of dividing Lebanon through its support to the powerful Hezbollah Shia militia.
Tehran's "support for Hamas split the Palestinians and postpones the establishment of the Palestinian state," he added.
The Security Council has slapped three rounds of sanctions on Iran for refusing to suspend uranium enrichment, a process which can be used to make the fissile material for a nuclear bomb.
But Russia and China appear to be reluctant to impose a fourth round of sanctions.
Peres said the UN "General Assembly and the Security Council bear responsibility to prevent agonies before they take place."